This WP focuses on the acoustics of the vocal tract, with particular emphasis on numerical strategies in the time domain for the wave equation, and on validation strategies. This implies that some approximations such as the flow coupling will be neglected, but a better discretization of the wave equation will be afforded, which will permit covering the whole frequency range of voice. Vowels and diphthongs will be then simulated to full extent and directly compared with experimental values in WP6. First, realistic static vocal tract geometries will be used to generate vowels, perform parametric tests and tune validation strategies by means of perceptual tests (T5.1). Then, the wave equation will be implemented in an ALE framework (T5.2) within a PML formulation (T5.3) to account for free field radiation. Diphthongs will be generated and again compared with experiments from WP6 (T5.4). More realistic geometries driven by results in WP7 will be also considered and the resulting sound validated through perceptual tests (T5.4). The acoustic code developed in this WP will be incorporated in the unified code of WP4 to establish the acoustic analogy framework needed to generate syllables involving fricatives.
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